Progesterone and breast cancer share a common link. The mammary glands’ proper growth and function require progesterone. The hormone function is receptor-dependent. The progesterone receptor (PR) is a receptor that regulates gene expression. The receptor controls the hormone (progesterone) action. Coregulators can modify the PR’s function. Consequently, a mutation or abnormal coregulator expression may affect the PR’s normal function. This may also affect the normal development of the mammary gland, resulting in breast cancer.

Today’s post is about progesterone and breast cancer, as it sheds light on the important role that PR plays in breast cancer. The article also discusses the role of progesterone in breast cancer. So, continue reading to find the link between breast cancer and progesterone.

Progesterone and Breast Cancer

Hormone estrogen and progesterone can regulate the growth and development of human tissues with the aid of estrogen and progesterone receptors. This includes the reproductive system and the breasts. These receptors are also crucial indicators of the health effects of breast cancer and other reproductive system tumors.

Receptors are proteins that can attach to specific molecules. They are found within and on cells. Estrogen and progesterone receptors are present in normal and some breast cancer cells. Without hormones, cells could not grow; hence, they require these receptors.

Association of the Receptor with Progesterone and Breast Cancer

PR is a crucial steroid hormone receptor that contributes to the formation and progression of breast cancer as well as to the healthy development of the mammary gland. Moreover, PR is a biomarker widely utilized to characterize breast cancer during the diagnostic phase. PR is essential for molecular subtyping and identifying the optimal course of treatment.

The link between breast cancer and progesterone is evident from the presence and absence of receptors. Based on receptors’ presence or absence, cancer cells are categorized as:

The growth and spread of the tumor are inhibited by preventing estrogen and progesterone from attaching to their respective receptors. Numerous medications can be utilized for this purpose.

Role of Progesterone in Breast Cancer

It is important to discuss estrogen’s role better to understand the role of progesterone in breast cancer. Both hormones work in tandem in the development and progression of breast cancer.

Estrogen encourages the formation of malignant cells, but progesterone tricks the immune system into believing it has been defeated. The immune system finds and kills microscopic tumors in our bodies, thereby preventing cancer development. Progesterone, on the other hand, makes it more difficult to detect tumor cells. Breast cancer and progesterone are strongly related.

If circulating breast tumor cells are exposed to progesterone, the hormone obscures the immune-recognizable warning signals that a breast tumor emits. Breast cancer may grow more aggressive if this occurs. Progesterone adds to tumor cells’ capacity to remain unnoticed.

hormonal replacement therapy

If cancer cells continue to send their signal, our immune system may become overstimulated. As a result, the ability of the immune system to remove cancer cells may be compromised. Immune checkpoint inhibitors strengthen patients’ immune systems and enhance their capacity to combat tumor cell growth. Certain tumors, like skin cancer and lung cancer, are more likely than others to respond to immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. On the other hand, breast cancer does not respond well to this sort of treatment because they are immunologically cold (does not stimulate the immune system much).

Progesterone and breast cancer are associated in a manner that the hormone inhibits the immune system’s ability to function. As a result, breast tumors are immunologically cold. Anti-progesterone may enhance the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in treating breast cancer.

Knowing the Receptor Status for Progesterone and Breast Cancer

The association between progesterone and breast cancer is linked with the treatment options. Cancer can be treated more effectively if doctors understand the disease’s hormone receptor status better. Whether or not the patient’s tumor contains one or both of these receptors, hormone therapy can reduce the body’s estrogen level or prevent it from functioning normally on breast cancer cells. This technique is beneficial for breast cancer patients with positive hormone receptors but useless for those with negative hormone receptor tumors (ER- and PR-negative).

Testing for these hormone receptors must be performed on a tissue sample acquired during a biopsy or when the tumor is surgically removed for any invasive breast cancer.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the most prevalent method for determining if cancer cells contain estrogen and progesterone receptors. The test results help determine the optimal course of action for your circumstance.

The test results indicate the condition of the hormone receptors.

Hormone receptor-positive: Breast cancer cells have progesterone receptors (PR), estrogen receptors (ER), or both. These cancers are treatable with hormone therapy that inhibits or reduces the body’s estrogen receptors. Tumors with positive hormone receptors often progress more slowly than cancers with negative receptors.

Hormone receptor-negative: Breast cancers are devoid of estrogen or progesterone receptor expression. These malignancies are not treatable with hormone treatment medicines. These tumors grow quicker than those having hormone receptors on their cells.

Triple-negative: Cancer cells do not have estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. These malignancies are more prevalent in women under 40. These tumors grow and spread more rapidly than most other subtypes. Since cancer cells lack hormone receptors, hormone therapy is ineffective in treating them. In addition, medications targeting HER2 are ineffective against these cancers because they do not contain a significant quantity of HER2. In some instances, chemotherapy may still be beneficial.

Triple-positive: There are positive results for all three biomarkers (ER, PR, and HER2). These tumors may be effectively treated with hormone treatment and HER2-targeting medications.

Breast cancer’s onset and spread are significantly influenced by progesterone receptors (PR). Breast cancer cells with PRs have a better prognosis and respond better to hormone therapy. By using functional PRs, hormone therapy prevents estrogen from having an impact on breast cancer cells. Contrarily, breast tumors without functional PRs are more aggressive and less sensitive to hormone therapy. It is critical to comprehend the role of receptors and progesterone in breast cancer to forecast disease progression and direct treatment choices.

See Also: What Are The Benefits Of Progesterone After Menopause?


Progesterone contributes to the growth and development of tumors in breast cancer. Certain breast cancer cells with functioning progesterone receptors can develop when progesterone levels are high. Estrogen-blocking or progesterone-production-suppressing hormone therapy is used to treat breast cancer. Estrogen can promote the growth of some breast tumors. The existence and function of PRs in breast cancer cells determine how well hormone treatment works. Progesterone’s effect on breast cancer is complex and dependent on the existence and functionality of PRs and other hormones. Progesterone can both promote and hinder the proliferation of breast cancer cells.

Family Medicine Austin

Bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract is a common medical issue that physicians encounter frequently. Hematemesis is a frequent sign of this condition, characterized by vomiting blood or a substance like coffee grounds. The condition is also present with melena, i.e., black, tarry stools. In severe cases, the common symptom is hematochezia, i.e., rectal bleeding.

When a patient is suspected of having upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding, the initial examination consists of checking the patient’s blood pressure, searching for relevant risk factors, and determining the care. An endoscopic examination can be performed to determine the cause of the bleeding.

Today’s post presents the pathophysiology of GI bleeding and treatment options to manage the issue. So, continue reading to learn about GI bleeding pathophysiology.

Bleeding in Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

Bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract refers to bleeding that originates from the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum (small intestine). It is a common medical emergency with symptoms including anemia, blood or coffee-ground-like material vomiting, black tarry stools, and abdominal pain. Hypovolemic shock may occur in extreme circumstances, resulting in organ failure and death.

Pathophysiology of GI Bleeding

Bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract is caused by various disorders, including peptic ulcers, gastritis, diverticulitis, and malignancy. The pathophysiology of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding involves disrupting the blood arteries that supply the GI tract, resulting in bleeding.

Conditions that are associated with the pathophysiology of GI bleeds are discussed below:

The majority of GI bleeds are caused by stomach and duodenal ulcers. Persons with peptic ulcers exhibit bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract as their primary symptom. Duodenal ulcers are four times as likely than stomach ulcers to cause bleeding. The proximity of posterior duodenal ulcers to GDA branches makes them more likely to hemorrhage than other duodenal ulcers.

Helicobacter pylori are responsible for the majority of cases of peptic ulcers. H. pylori is frequently associated with persistent and long-term bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Long-term usage of over-the-counter medications and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can also induce peptic ulcers. New medications, such as H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors, which prevent the body from producing acid, have significantly advanced the treatment for peptic ulcers. However, these individuals are more likely to experience rebound or an increase in acid secretion after abruptly discontinuing the medication. Thus, it is essential to inquire about medical history.

Stress ulcers can result in multisystem trauma, hypotension, respiratory failure, sepsis, and jaundice. It may be caused by bile reflux, which damages the stomach’s protective barrier, or by splanchnic vasoconstriction, which restricts blood supply to the liver. Acute gastroduodenal lesions may result from a shock, an infection, surgery, trauma, burns, or a brain condition that leads to GI bleeding.

One-third of all upper GI bleeding is caused by diffuse gastritis. The condition is characterized by several erosions, with the majority occurring in the fundus and body of the stomach. NSAIDs, alcohol, and steroids increase the likelihood of bruising since they are detrimental to the stomach lining. H. pylori is also associated with slow, protracted bleeding.

Varices are enlarged veins in the submucosa caused by increased pressure in the portal vein. Varix ulceration, which can be brought on by reflux esophagitis or increased pressure within varix, is the initial stage in the path to variceal bleeding. Variceal bleeding is responsible for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in cirrhosis and portal hypertension patients. These bleeds pose a threat to the patient’s life. Patients with liver illness produce fewer clotting factors, which increases the likelihood that bleeding will cause complications. Knowing the severity of liver illness is crucial to provide better care.

Dieulafoy’s lesions are large, intertwining blood arterioles in the submucosa of the stomach. Most lesions occur in the fundus and body of the stomach, along the stomach’s slight curve. Since there is a hole in the gastric mucosa, Dieulafoy’s lesions induce bleeding. This hole results from pressure exerted by the bulging and pulsing arteriole.

Both malignant and benign cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract can produce bleeding. Neoplasms are known to induce light and consistent bleeding, and patients frequently exhibit symptoms of anemia. Endoscopy and biopsies are typically used to determine what is wrong with these tumors.

Aortoenteric fistulas occur when a prosthetic graft in a patient who has had aortic repair degrades into the intestine due to an infection surrounding the graft. An abdominal aortic aneurysm pressing against the colon caused the bleeding. Patients frequently experience a little bleed that resolves on its own, followed by a massive bleed that causes their blood pressure to drop rapidly and need immediate medical attention.

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Managing GI Bleed Pathophysiology

The treatment of GI bleed is based on the bleeding severity and the underlying cause. The initial evaluation consists of a comprehensive patient history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests to identify blood loss and the patient’s overall health status. Diagnostic imaging techniques such as upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy, and radiographic examinations may be performed to determine the source of bleeding.

The following steps may be used to manage GI bleed pathophysiology:

GI bleed management necessitates a multidisciplinary strategy comprising gastroenterologists, surgeons, and critical care specialists to maximize outcomes and reduce complications.

See Also: Stomach Flu vs. Food Poisoning: Symptoms and Causes


Bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract is a medical emergency that, if not treated quickly, might be fatal. The blood arteries supplying the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum are damaged in the pathophysiology of upper GI bleeding, which results in hemorrhage.

A multidisciplinary strategy is used to treat upper GI bleeding, including resuscitation, locating the cause, and administering the proper medications. For identifying and treating upper GI bleeding, endoscopy is frequently the first line of treatment; however, in more serious situations, angiography, embolization, or surgery may be necessary.

Patients with upper GI bleeding receive comprehensive care from GI specialists at Family Medicine Austin. Many occurrences of upper GI bleeding can be successfully treated, and the risk of consequences is reduced with prompt diagnosis and therapy.

Get medical help immediately if you or a loved one exhibits upper GI bleeding symptoms. Contact us for an assessment and treatment. You can regain your health and avoid more issues with the appropriate therapy.

Family Medicine Austin

Spotting while peeing is common in pregnancy, particularly during the first three months. However, bleeding at any point during pregnancy may indicate a problem or underlying issue. Always inform your doctor of your symptoms to determine the causes, which aids in deciding treatment options.

Knowing the causes of vaginal bleeding and spotting while peeing is crucial. If you know the most common causes of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy, you will know what to look for and when to contact your physician. Today’s post will discuss the etiology of blood in pee during pregnancy. This post serves as a guide for vaginal bleeding and spotting in pregnancy.

Spotting while Peeing

Urination is one of the many bodily functions that undergo significant changes during pregnancy. Changes in a woman’s urine can indicate whether she is pregnant and if she may experience complications during her pregnancy. It is essential to keep track of any changes in your urine, discuss these changes with your doctor, and receive routine urinalysis testing.

During pregnancy, women may feel an increased urge to urinate frequently. Once the embryo is implanted in the uterus, the body begins to produce the pregnancy hormone hCG responsible for frequent urination.

As the fetus grows, the uterus will begin to exert pressure on the bladder, causing it to shrink. As a result, it will fill with urine quicker, and you will need to use the restroom more frequently and urgently. Additionally, you may urinate when you laugh, cough, or sneeze.

Due to the bleeding in your uterus, you may notice spotting while peeing. If you observe this at any time throughout your pregnancy, you should immediately contact your prenatal care physician. Some women may experience minor bleeding during the implantation phase of their early pregnancies, but this does not always indicate a problem. Some women may bleed slightly during sexual activity, an internal examination, or a pap smear.

Causes of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy include:

When a woman at the end of her pregnancy experiences spotting while peeing that is frequently accompanied by mucus, it indicates labor. This vaginal discharge, which may seem pink or crimson, is called a bloody show.

Blood in Pee During Pregnancy: Finding out the Causes

During pregnancy, vaginal bleeding can be caused by a variety of circumstances. During the beginning stages of pregnancy, bleeding is frequent. In most instances, it does not signal a major issue. Spotting while peeing in the early stages is normal. Bleeding that happens later in pregnancy is potentially more harmful.

A woman may have light bleeding or spotting when the fertilized egg gets adhered to the uterine lining one to two weeks following conception. Due to the expansion of blood vessels in this area during pregnancy, the cervix may bleed more readily than usual. Infection, early pregnancy loss, and ectopic pregnancy can all cause early pregnancy bleeding.

UTI Specialist

Inflammation or growths of the cervix are two frequent conditions that can occur later in pregnancy, and both can result in light bleeding. Bleeding is a more worrying indicator. If there is excessive bleeding, there may be a problem with the placenta. Excessive bleeding can indicate an impending preterm birth. Immediately call your obstetrician or go to the hospital if you observe any bleeding in the later stages of your pregnancy.

Later in pregnancy, bleeding can be caused by several placental complications, including the following:

Placental abruption: The placenta separates from the uterine wall before, during, or immediately after birth. The most prevalent symptoms and signs are vaginal bleeding and abdominal or back pain. Placental abruption can have devastating effects if not diagnosed promptly. The unborn child may not receive enough oxygen, and the woman may lose a substantial amount of blood.

Placenta previa: The placenta is excessively low in the uterus. It can partially or completely cover the cervix. It could also result in vaginal bleeding. As the bottom region of the uterus expands and thins between 32 and 35 weeks of pregnancy, certain kinds of placenta previa heal independently without surgical intervention. The process of labor and delivery can then resume normally.

Placenta accrete: The placenta (or a piece of it) invades and fuses with the uterine wall. It can cause considerable blood loss after birth and third-trimester pregnancy hemorrhage. A simple ultrasound examination conducted during pregnancy can detect most instances. However, the issue is occasionally not diagnosed until after birth. If you have placenta accreta, you risk experiencing life-threatening blood loss following delivery.

Blood in Pee While Pregnant: An indication of UTI

Pregnant women are significantly more susceptible to UTIs (urinary tract infections). Up to 10% of pregnant women have at least one UTI during their pregnancy. Bacteria that enter the urethra and subsequently spread to the bladder, ureters, or kidneys cause UTIs. There are increased hormones that relax muscles during pregnancy to facilitate bacterial entry into the urinary system.

You may have a UTI if your urine has a foul odor, is hazy, or contains a small amount of blood. Blood in pee during pregnancy might be an indication of UTI.

You should contact the doctor immediately if you notice blood or spotting while peeing. UTIs during pregnancy can be extremely harmful since they can affect your and the fetus’s health. They can also increase the likelihood of preterm birth. Your physician may do a urinalysis to diagnose a UTI. This test examines your urine for bacteria and white and red blood cells.

You can prevent or recover from UTIs by drinking enough water, emptying your bladder before and after sexual activity, keeping the region surrounding genitalia clean, and urinating until the bladders are empty. Additionally, you can prevent UTIs by avoiding bubble baths, using cotton underwear, and avoiding tight pants or leggings.

Conditions Associated with Blood in Pee During Pregnancy

A variety of disorders can cause blood in the urine. Some causes of bleeding or spotting while peeing include:

See Also: Why You Have UTI Symptoms After Taking Antibiotics


Bleeding can be frightening during pregnancy. Depending on the circumstances, bleeding during pregnancy may or may not be cause for concern. If you are pregnant and experiencing vaginal bleeding or spotting while peeing, you should immediately schedule an appointment with your doctor. The management options for blood in pee while pregnant include bed rest and avoiding sex.

Family Medicine Austin has experts in women’s health who provide women of all ages with the best possible treatment. Our staff can diagnose and treat a variety of gynecological issues. Book your appointment now to get assistance with your health care needs.

Family Medicine Austin

Autoimmune and chronic neutropenia are rare disorders that make it difficult for the body to fight against potentially lethal infections. Neutropenia occurs when the body’s neutrophil count falls below 1500 per microliter.

The number of neutrophils decreases due to increased neutrophil destruction in the periphery by antibodies resulting from autoimmune illnesses. These autoantibodies target a cell membrane antigen located on IgG Fc receptors. There are two types of autoimmune neutropenia: primary and secondary. Primary autoimmune disease is common in children, whereas secondary autoimmune disease commonly occurs in adults with other autoimmune diseases or blood cancers.

Depending on how severe the illness is and whether any underlying infections are present, the signs and symptoms of autoimmune neutropenia vary from person to person. Some people might not have symptoms, while others might have mouth ulcers, fever, weariness, and repeated infections.

This post discusses the low neutrophils autoimmune disease and autoimmune neutropenia treatment and management strategies.

Autoimmune Neutropenia

Neutropenia is characterized by a low number of neutrophils (type of white blood cells). It may result from various causes, such as decreased production, endothelium, tissue sequestration, or enhanced peripheral breakdown.

The immune system incorrectly recognizes neutrophils as foreign or aberrant and then destroys these cells due to this misrecognition. The immune system produces autoantibodies directed against neutrophils, and their presence can be observed in the blood. These autoantibodies bind to the neutrophils and mark them for elimination by the complement system or other immune cells. The elimination of neutrophils reduces the total number of this type of cell in the bloodstream.

Since neutrophils are an important part of the body’s defense mechanism against bacterial and fungal infections, people with neutropenia are more likely to contract infections than healthy ones.

Chronic neutropenia is defined as autoimmune neutropenia lasting more than three months and having no identifiable cause. In addition to idiopathic reasons, various autoimmune diseases can result in chronic neutropenia.

Based on its origin and pathophysiology, it is categorized as either primary or secondary. In children, the predominant form of autoimmune neutropenia is characterized by a hematologic abnormality (issues with blood cells) and hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the bone marrow.

The manifestations of secondary autoimmune neutropenia in adults are autoimmune illnesses, primary immunological deficits, infections, hematologic malignancies, and drug exposure. It is also prevalent among individuals recently undergoing transplants and those with specific neurological diseases.

Depending on the severity of the autoimmune disease, the clinical manifestations might range from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Children are at risk for repeated infections, hematologic malignancies, and mental disorders.

Conditions Associated with Low Neutrophils, Autoimmune Disease

Autoimmune disorders develop when the body’s immune system mistakes its tissues for external intruders and attacks them. Some autoimmune diseases associated with low neutrophils include:

If you have low neutrophil or autoimmune disease, consult your healthcare practitioner to manage your condition and prevent infections.

Autoimmune Specialist

Diagnosing Low Neutrophils, Autoimmune Disease

A physical examination, blood tests, and medical history review are required for diagnosis.

If your doctor diagnoses you with autoimmune neutropenia, they may recommend you to a hematologist or a specialist in blood diseases. Together, you can identify the underlying cause of your disease and develop a suitable treatment plan.

Autoimmune Neutropenia Treatment

The treatment depends on the underlying condition and the pathophysiologic manifestation of the disease. It aims to reduce the likelihood of infection. Following are some common autoimmune neutropenia treatment options:

In addition to medicinal treatments, autoimmune neutropenia can be managed with lifestyle modifications. They include practicing good hygiene, avoiding contact with sick individuals, consuming a nutritious diet, obtaining sufficient rest, and avoiding activities that raise the risk of infection. Close monitoring of any infections is also necessary for management. Seeing your physician develop the optimal treatment approach for your unique condition is essential.

See Also: The Diagnosis and Treatment of Autoimmune Encephalitis


Chronic or autoimmune neutropenia can significantly impact an individual’s immune system and increase the risk of infection. Various factors, like medications, underlying autoimmune diseases, and genetic disorders, can contribute to these conditions. Early detection and management are critical for avoiding complications and improving overall health. Medication, growth factors, and intravenous immunoglobulin are some treatment options.

If you are experiencing symptoms of autoimmune or chronic neutropenia, it is critical to seek the advice of a healthcare professional to ensure an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Autoimmune specialists at Family Medicine Austin provide expert care and support to patients suffering from autoimmune illnesses. They can collaborate with you to create a personalized treatment plan that meets your needs and improves your quality of life. If you need treatment for one of these conditions, do not hesitate to schedule an appointment with one of our experts.

Family Medicine Austin

Urinary tract infections, or UTIs, are extremely prevalent disorders that can afflict men and women of any age but are more prevalent in women. Infections can affect the bladder, the kidneys, or any other portion of the urinary tract. Pyelonephritis is a kidney infection that can be extremely serious and even fatal.

Due to the proximity of the lower urinary system and the lower digestive tract, the same issue could affect both. This could result in symptoms such as diarrhea, which indicates an infection in the intestines, and frequent, painful urination, which indicates a UTI or bladder infection. However, an issue in one tract triggers a problem in the other, resulting in the patient experiencing symptoms in both tracts simultaneously. It leads the patients to wonder: can UTI cause diarrhea?

Today’s post is all about diarrhea and UTI. This post will answer the main question: can a UTI cause diarrhea? Keep reading to find the link between diarrhea and UTI, the causes, symptoms, and treatment options.

Diarrhea and UTI

UTIs are prevalent (especially in females). 90% of UTIs manifest as acute cystitis (urinary bladder inflammation). Complex UTIs, a more serious kind of UTI in which the infection travels to the kidneys or bloodstream, can occur in some individuals. When a UTI is complicated, the symptoms tend to be more severe, and the digestive tract may become involved, resulting in diarrhea. A complex UTI induces diarrhea or loose stools. The term complicated UTI indicates that the infection has spread outside the urine bladder. When bacteria enter the kidneys or the circulatory system, they might produce other symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or loose stools.

The digestive and urinary systems are intricately related, particularly where the bladder meets the colon and rectum. Consequently, an inflammatory process in the bladder will directly damage these structures. The heat produced by the inflammatory process speeds up intestinal motility at contact areas. Inflammatory mediators released in the urinary system move to the digestive tract via shared blood pools in the region. In either situation, the effect will be increased fluid and movement in the intestines, resulting in diarrhea. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea are symptoms of systemic distress when the kidneys are affected.

Causes and Symptoms

Diarrhea is a common symptom that is frequently caused by digestive tract issues. Sometimes it occurs for reasons unrelated to digestion, and sometimes it seems to occur for no apparent reason. The most common form of diarrhea is acute diarrhea. It begins rapidly, worsens rapidly, and is brief. People with diarrhea frequently exhibit additional signs and symptoms, such as abdominal cramps or pain, excessive gas, and a sense of fullness.

A UTI can result in burning or painful urination, a frequent need to urinate, and pain in the lower abdomen and pelvic regions. There is also a pungent urine odor when the person has a UTI. Most UTIs are ascending infections, which begin in the urethra and progress to the bladder. It can extend to the kidney, causing flank pain and other symptoms.

UTI Specialist

Appetite loss, nausea, and vomiting also indicate UTIs and diarrheal diseases. When you have diarrhea, you may feel nauseous and vomit. Both UTIs and infectious diarrhea can cause fever. In extreme cases, there is a possibility that the individual will get dehydrated or develop septicemia. In some instances, additional signs and symptoms may manifest. Both septicemia and extreme dehydration are medical emergencies that must be treated immediately.

Can UTI Cause Diarrhea

A UTI can cause diarrhea if the chemicals that induce inflammation in the infected portion of the urinary system impact the colon. These substances may result in pain and increase colonic activity, resulting in diarrhea.

UTI itself cannot cause diarrhea. However, as a potential adverse effect of treating a UTI, you may experience diarrhea or loose stools. In most cases, antibiotics are the initial treatment for UTIs. People with a UTI may be prescribed additional medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which have been associated with diarrhea. These drugs can produce diarrhea or loose stools in numerous ways, including direct irritant effects and intestinal microbiota imbalance—most people who get diarrhea due to a medicine experience mild symptoms that resolve on their own.

Treatment Options for Diarrhea and UTI

If the same underlying issue causes diarrhea and UTI, the same medication may treat both conditions. However, this is not the case, as always. Diarrhea and a UTI can be treated separately yet simultaneously. Typically, diarrhea is a short-term condition requiring only supportive care or sometimes none. Rest, drinks, and a bland diet are all that are necessary for the treatment of diarrhea.

Since bacteria cause the majority of UTIs, antibiotics are frequently used to treat them. Antibiotics can also be administered to those who have diarrhea due to a bacterial infection. You may require probiotics to restore normal intestinal flora (naturally occurring bowel microbes).

UTIs can cause fluid and electrolyte loss due to frequent urination and diarrhea. This could result in dehydration. Therefore, it is essential to consume enough water to remain hydrated. It involves taking oral rehydrating solutions (ORS). Oral hydration is not an option if the patient’s condition requires intravenous fluid administration. Always consult a doctor if you have diarrhea and a UTI so that both problems may be adequately treated and cared for and grave consequences can be prevented.

Problems, some of which may be life-threatening, can be prevented with prompt and effective treatment. It is crucial to rapidly identify the cause of the illness and treat it with the appropriate medications.

A person with a UTI can experience diarrhea due to the infection spreading to the gastrointestinal tract, but diarrhea is not a common symptom of a UTI. UTIs typically affect the urinary system, consisting of the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. If a person has a UTI and diarrhea, they must see a doctor for an accurate diagnosis and treatment. In addition to prescribing antibiotics to treat the UTI, the physician may suggest additional diarrhea treatment. Occasionally, diarrhea may be caused by a separate gastrointestinal issue unrelated to a UTI.

See Also: Bladder infection vs. UTI: What’s the difference?


UTI impacts the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. Diarrhea is not a typical symptom of a UTI, but an infected urinary tract could spread to the gastrointestinal tract and kidney, causing diarrhea. Kidney infections that are not treated result in grave consequences, including diarrhea, flank pain, and septicemia. An uncomplicated UTI can cause diarrhea. It is also possible that a person’s diarrhea is caused by a particular gastrointestinal condition unrelated to a UTI. Consult a physician for a proper diagnosis if you suspect you have an infection and are also experiencing diarrhea.

At Family Medicine Austin, our team of medical experts is committed to providing comprehensive, individualized care to all our patients. We are here to help you recover and return to your normal life. We will work with you to correctly identify and treat your diarrhea and UTI-related symptoms. So, do not ignore your health problems and schedule an appointment today.

Family Medicine Austin

Bladder spasms occur when the bladder’s muscles contract swiftly and forcefully, causing you to feel the urge to urinate. They can occur in patients with diseases such as overactive bladder. They are common following a hysterectomy, especially in the first few weeks.

A bladder spasm may result in incontinence (urine leakage). Other symptoms associated with spasms include frequent need to urinate and a burning sensation. The spasm may also indicate an infection. UTI (urinary tract infection) can lead to bladder pain, urgency, burning, and spasms. When a bladder infection is treated, bladder and urine-related symptoms may subside.

This post elaborates on bladder spasms and their common occurrence after a hysterectomy. The center also discusses the causes associated with bladder spasms after urinating. Moreover, the article also highlights associated bladder issues and their treatment options.

Bladder Spasms: Exploring Causes

A bladder spasm, also known as a “detrusor contraction,” occurs when a bladder muscle contracts quickly and unexpectedly, causing a person to feel the urgent need to urinate. The bladder could leak because the spasm could force urine out. It is a common symptom of an overactive bladder.

There are a variety of health conditions that might cause bladder spasms. Changes in blood flow and the activity of the nerves that control the bladder are associated with spasms. It may also be caused by your food or the medication you take.

Spasms can also be triggered by an infection, a recent surgery, or nerve or muscle damage in the pelvic region.

Bladder spasms can occur at any age, but those older, overweight, pregnant, experiencing hormonal changes, or having a neurological problem are more prone to also experience urine incontinence.

Among the most frequent causes of bladder spasms are:

The brain is responsible for sending a signal to the bladder muscle, instructing it to contract and release urine. Certain neurological illnesses can cause nerve damage and make communicating difficult for the brain and bladder. As a result, the bladder fails to function properly. Nerve injury also creates bladder issues, leading to neurogenic bladder.

UTI Specialist

Nervous system disorders or injuries that cause spasms are:

Surgical procedures also cause bladder spasms. For instance, during lower abdominal surgery, the nerves that regulate the bladder or the muscles that support the pelvic floor and bladder get damaged, leading to spasms.

Bladder Spasms after Hysterectomy

Hysterectomy is the surgical procedure of removing the uterus. Depending on the underlying condition or the medical necessity, it is either partially or completely removed. Additionally, the cervix, ovaries, Fallopian tubes, and other surrounding tissues may need to be removed.

It is a major operation that might injure or weaken the abdominal cavity-supporting ligaments. The bladder will lose the assistance it received from the uterus after a hysterectomy. Additionally, the surgery will cause the bladder to move within the pelvis.

The bladder is separated from the uterus as part of the hysterectomy procedure. As a result, the nerves that control the bladder are susceptible to alteration.

Changes in urinary function following a hysterectomy may be caused by alterations in the body’s structure or neuronal function. Endopelvic fascia connects the bladder, the uterus, and the rectum to the side walls of the pelvic cavity. It also assists in supporting the rectum. The ligaments hold the cervix in place while the remainder of the uterus is unrestricted to move. This makes the cervix the direct support for the organ. The pelvic plexus consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons. Neurons are essential to coordinating smooth muscles in the bladder and intestines. The pelvic plexus is vital to the coordination of these contractions. During a hysterectomy, damage to this autonomic nerve supply may result in malfunctioning. Hence, bladder spasms after a hysterectomy occur.

Bladder Spasms after Urinating

Some people also experience bladder spasms after urinating. The most common cause is subacute cystitis. It is the most prevalent bacterial infection characterized by the inability to urinate or painful urination. If you have urine incontinence, your condition could worsen. Additionally, it might result in hematuria or pyuria, which is blood in the urine. It frequently causes other symptoms like fever and low back pain.

Symptoms of bladder spasms after urinating include a strong urge to urinate even if the bladder is empty and pain in the pelvic area.

You should seek immediate medical assistance if spasms induce a high fever, considerable pain in the pelvic floor muscle, or blood in the urine. They will thoroughly examine your symptoms to determine a suitable treatment plan.

Managing Bladder Spasms after Urinating/Hysterectomy

The first step in treating bladder spasms is comprehending their signs and causes. The following can lessen the frequency and intensity of bladder spasms and enhance your quality of life:

Lifestyle modification and other treatments may help you better control and lessen your bladder spasms. Treatment for the underlying problem, such as an infection, is likely to be successful in alleviating the related symptoms.

You should consult a physician if any of your symptoms persist or worsen. You may need to alter your existing treatment regimen or try a different medication.

See Also: Bladder infection vs. UTI: What’s the difference?


Bladder spasms are uncontrollable contractions of the muscles in the bladder wall. These abrupt, forceful contractions can encourage urination even when the bladder is not full. Bladder spasm is a common sign of bladder issues such as urine incontinence, interstitial cystitis, or bladder irritation. They are also common after a hysterectomy.

Treatment options include medication, lifestyle modifications, and physical therapy. A healthcare professional should be consulted to identify the underlying cause of bladder spasms and create an effective treatment strategy.

A skilled team of specialists offers comprehensive treatment at Family Medicine Austin, including experts in women’s health and UTIs. Make an appointment immediately to enjoy the benefits of individualized, tailored medical care.

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Are you experiencing eye allergies during pregnancy? Are you worried about using eye drops that could harm you or your baby? We are here to tell you that allergic reactions are normal during pregnancy. They can range from mild to moderate to severe and generally involve the nose, the throat, other organs, or sometimes the whole body. Eye allergies also commonly occur during pregnancy and can cause extreme discomfort and pain.

However, that does not mean you have to suffer! There is plenty of safe-to-use over-the-counter eye drops for pregnant women. Read ahead to determine which allergy eye drops are best for you while pregnant.

Allergy Eye Drops while Pregnant: Relation between Pregnancy and Eye Allergies

Allergies are reactions of the human body to harmful substances called allergens. These allergens may not necessarily be dangerous for you; your body tends to react differently. These allergic reactions can occur in the eyes, the respiratory tract, the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, or anywhere else in the body.

The primary mode of transport of allergens from the outside environment into our body includes by mouth or nose. Other passages may include any cuts and tears in the skin, especially by skin contact. Eye allergies are caused by pollen, dust, pet dander, and mold that enter the eye. People commonly use allergy eye drops while pregnant to tackle their eye allergies. During pregnancy, the mother’s immune system tends to get stronger to protect her and the developing baby from infections and keep them both healthy.

Allergic reactions might tend to be stronger during pregnancy than one might expect, owing to the newfound strength of the mother’s immune system. Some women with no previous symptoms of allergies will inexplicably start developing them during pregnancy. Women who have allergies before pregnancy complain of getting worse during this period, with the symptoms increasing up to 30%.

Symptoms of Eye Allergies

Allergies are exacerbated, remain the same, or decrease significantly during pregnancy. These allergies can be seasonal or occur due to exposure to an allergen. They usually present as itchy, irritated, or watery eyes. Some common symptoms of eye allergies include:

These eye allergies not only influence the ability and quality of sleep but also increase the chances of infection and feelings of general discomfort. Usually, eye drops are used to treat eye allergies in pregnant women as a topical treatment. Most eye drops consist of a medicated solution that is applied on the eye’s surface in the form of reductions to soothe the irritation and other symptoms. They provide targeted relief from the symptoms, reducing the itching and redness.

Allergy treatment

Eye Drops for Pregnant Women and Teratogens

Some substances women use during pregnancy, whether ingested or applied topically, have a high chance of crossing the mother’s placenta. Subsequently, they might cause harm to the developing baby in her uterus. Therefore, women must be careful about the drugs and medicine they consume during pregnancy, as they might contain teratogens.

Teratogens are harmful substances that can cause fetal abnormalities or congenital disorders in the embryo when exposed to them in utero. This is particularly important to consider during the early stages of pregnancy or the first trimester when the baby is in the initial stages of development.

Therefore, it is essential for women suffering from eye allergies to use teratogen-free eye drops while pregnant. They should only be used when there is a clear need to decrease the chances of harm or when they are medically required and prescribed by a practicing physician. Pregnant women often overlook the risks and potential teratogenic effects of some medications they might be using. Always consult your doctor before using allergy eye drops during pregnancy for your and your baby’s safety.

Safe to Use Allergy Eyedrops in Pregnancy

Eye drops containing sodium cromoglicate are considered safe during pregnancy to treat allergies. These eye drops do not have teratogens and are not harmful to the body. Additionally, only a minimal amount of it enters the mother’s body.

About 650 women used sodium cromoglicate without experiencing any congenital disabilities in the baby, which makes it safe for use by pregnant women. Sodium cromoglicate in allergy eye drops while pregnant does not require additional screening or monitoring of the baby. The fact that very little of it enters the mother’s body and crosses the placenta provides extra reassurance that it cannot be harmful when used in eye drops for pregnant women. Common prescription allergy eye drops safe during pregnancy include Restasis and Xiidra.

Sodium Cromoglicate in Allergy Eye Drops During Pregnancy

Sodium Cromoglicate is a substance that inhibits the release of histamines (a chemical that mediates allergic reactions). It also stabilizes mast cells that contribute to the release of histamines in allergic reactions. For the treatment of eye allergies, it is used in a 2% w/v solution in eye drops. As sodium cromoglicate does not cross the placenta and the risk of exposure to the fetus is very low, it is considered safe for pregnant women to use in allergy eye drops.

Which Eye Drops to Not Use During Allergies While Pregnant

Allergy eye drops used while pregnant is safe when the antihistamine is sodium cromoglicate. However, those containing Travatan, Xalatan, Lumigan, Xalacom, and Brinzolamide are contraindicated because they outweigh the adverse effects. Always consult a health practitioner before using any allergy eye drops while pregnant to ensure safety.

Precautions for Using Allergy Eye Drops While Pregnant

To administer eye drops during pregnancy, keep the following things in mind:

It is advised by medical practitioners to discontinue the use of contact lenses and wear glasses instead until your condition is fully treated.

See Also: Green Tea Allergy And Its Symptoms


Eye allergies can also be mistaken for Keratitis, Acute glaucoma, infective conjunctivitis, or iritis. If these are left untreated or only treated with eye drops while pregnant, they can cause severe harm to the mother or the developing baby. It is essential to consult a medical practitioner when suffering from allergic reactions during pregnancy, with a detailed medical history of your condition and the medications currently under use.

Family Medicine Austin offers quality healthcare for all stages of life for you and your family, including pregnancy, and the best treatment for allergies throughout the Austin and Leander, Texas, area. Head to our website today to learn more about our treatment plans and wide-ranging health services!

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AIED, shorthand for the autoimmune disease of the inner ear, is a rare disease with an occurrence rate of 15 for every 100,000 people. In an autoimmune disease, the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks itself, and in the case of autoimmune ear disease, the immune system attacks cochin, a protein in the inner ear.

Sometimes, an autoimmune ear disease occurs when the body is already suffering from another autoimmune disease, making a whole group of two or three autoimmune diseases. In most cases, however, the disease occurs on its own.



Early diagnosis is essential in treating autoimmune ear disease. The earlier the diagnosis, the greater the chances for treatment are. Since AIED occurs rarely, doctors may link its symptoms to some other disease. However, if hearing loss occurs in both ears over time, and the symptoms are unexplainable by any other disease, doctors may test for AIED.

The best way to check for the presence of an autoimmune disease is to check the autoantibody figures in the blood. That gets done through a blood test. Doctors may also test check for leukaemia or other hemolytic disorders through a complete blood count (CBC).

The main goal is to rule out the possibility of any other disease. So, doctors may also check for dyslipidemias through a lipid panel test, or syphilis through an FTA/ABS blood screening.

An ear, nose, or throat (ENT) specialist may test your hearing through serial audiograms or check the structures of your inner ear through imaging like MRIs. Your specialist will check for the presence of vascular lesions, and space-occupying lesions in your brain and cerebellopontine angle.

The vestibular portion of the ear controls the balance and composure of the body, and a vestibular test evaluates your hearing by checking this portion. Even after you get treated, you may have to get audiogram tests done regularly to keep track of your hearing. Hearing tests can also be done at home, so you may notice any changes and report to your doctor immediately.

Doctors may also administer steroids and conclude the disease in question by checking how the steroids improve symptoms.

Once you get diagnosed with AIED, do not feel too afraid. You at least know the exact cause of your hearing loss, and treatment is possible in most cases.

Autoimmune Specialist

Treatment for Autoimmune Ear Disease

Treatments for an autoimmune disease of the inner ear include the intake of medication to lessen the effect of symptoms or using hearing aids to reverse hearing.


Steroids like dexamethasone or prednisone are given on an initial trial period of four weeks and a dose of 60 mg or 1 mg/kg per day. Smaller doses are ineffective and increase the chances of relapse. An autoimmune disease causes inflammation and steroids reduce it. If the symptoms of autoimmune ear disease get better because of steroid treatment, the doctors conclude that the disease in the course was AIED indeed and giving you its symptoms.

Even though the results of corticosteroids vary from person to person, treatment is usually successful in 60% of people. Steroid treatment is affordable but has side effects such as increased blood pressure, mood swings, anxiety, irritability, ingestion, and headaches. The mode of administration for corticosteroids into the body includes injections administered directly into the eardrum. In case an emergency arises, doctors may also give the steroids orally.


Autoimmune ear disease can result due to antibodies attacking the body, allergies, or some other complex reason. In the case that AIED occurs due to antibodies, plasmapheresis proves as an effective, even though expensive, treatment. In this treatment, blood is taken out from the ear, and separated into its components, blood cells, and plasma.

Then technicians treat the blood by removing antibodies and then the blood is transferred back into the body. Another disadvantage of this treatment is that you will have to get the treatment every month. About 50% of the patients treated through plasmapheresis show successful results.

Gene, Cell Therapy, and Biologics

In gene therapy, new genes get introduced into old cells in the body, while in cell therapy; individual stem cells get introduced into the ear canal so they may reproduce.

If treatment with corticosteroids does not improve results, doctors may suggest biological drugs made from living organisms or some parts of living organisms that have proven effective. These drugs help with autoimmune ear disease treatment as well as people who get dependent on steroids. Examples of these drugs include golimumab and rituximab.

In biological treatment, either genes are combined to form a fusion gene to make fusion proteins, or monoclonal antibodies are used. A disadvantage of biologics is that they may increase the risk of bacterial infections.


Since the immune system attacking the body is the main characteristic of AIED, an obvious way to combat the disease is through immunosuppressants, through which the immune system’s response slows down. However, immunosuppressants may have a few side effects such as increased blood pressure, hair loss, acne, fatigue, mouth sores, and diabetes.

Auditory Devices

Hearing devices, like cochlear implants, help compensate for hearing loss by either intensifying sound or enhancing hearing. Cochlear implant surgery involves opening up the cochlea and inserting an electrode into it. The surgery lasts for two to four hours, is a safe procedure, and has only a few side effects, such as vertigo, numbness, and drying of the mouth.

Hearing aids are also a good option since the patient may remove them whenever he likes. However, they may not allow the sound to be clear.

Before assigning you treatment, doctors have to consider a variety of factors to understand what mode of treatment is best for you. Such factors include how old you are, your tolerance levels toward medication, how severe your symptoms and your overall lifestyle and health.

Treatment does not just end abruptly. If you are on some form of medication, you may have to continue it for some time so that the immune system does not begin to attack the ear again. However, the dosage of the medications is lessened over time.

See Also: The Diagnosis and Treatment of Autoimmune Encephalitis


You may risk complete hearing loss and lose your balance if you do not get treatment for autoimmune ear disease immediately. Hence, if you are already suffering from some other autoimmune disease, or face any of the symptoms of AIED, get yourself tested and treated. Our healthcare specialists at Family Medicine Austin are well-trained to test for autoimmune diseases, as well as treat them. If you suffer from hearing loss and cannot find any other reason to explain it, you may be suffering from AIED, so book a consultation now.

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Considering HRT vs. TRT, people have numerous misconceptions. Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) and Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) are both forms of hormonal therapy, but they are administered differently.

TRT is the preferred treatment for hormonal imbalances in men. HRT is the treatment of choice for women.

The present article discusses HRT vs. TRT. Read on to find out how the two therapies differ. So, let’s dig out everything about TRT vs. HRT.

HRT vs. TRT: An Overview

To explore HRT vs. TRT, let’s briefly overview the two.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)

HRT is a method for treating the symptoms of a hormonal imbalance. Hormones communicate with various organs of the body and regulate a vast array of biological functions and systems. The endocrine system is the component of the body that produces hormones and regulates their function and production.

Age increases the likelihood of hormonal abnormalities or shortages: menopause, growth hormone imbalance, and thyroid hormone imbalance cause most hormonal disorders.

Hormonal imbalances or low hormone levels can result in various physical and psychological symptoms, including aching breasts, feelings of anxiety or depression, and sexual dysfunction.

When hormone levels go too low or out of balance, HRT can help return them to a healthy range. Using these therapies to correct a hormonal imbalance can have life-altering impacts, improving a person’s health, lifestyle, and quality of life.

For a good reason, hormone replacement treatment has recently gained popularity. HRT may postpone the onset of common signs and symptoms of aging, prevent their progression, and even reverse their consequences.

The production and release of hormones are linked to aging and the development of chronic diseases. HRT has been demonstrated to reduce the risk of cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and heart attack, as well as the risk of diseases associated with aging, such as diabetes, cancer, and heart disease.

Testosterone Replacement Therapy

On the other hand, Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) is used for men. Hypogonadism, often known as testosterone deficiency, is frequently treated with TRT. Since men of a specific age are more prone to experience it, it is sometimes referred to as male menopause or andropause. A man’s testosterone levels begin to decline at 30 and continue to decline for the remainder of his life.

Low testosterone levels can produce various symptoms, including a loss of libido, a loss of muscle mass, an increase in body fat, melancholy, exhaustion, a lack of motivation, and a general sensation of malaise is the feeling of being tired. Men with naturally low testosterone levels may benefit from therapy that increases their testosterone levels.

hormonal replacement therapy

HRT vs. TRT: Gender-Specific Usage

Regarding TRT vs. HRT, the preferred therapy for women is HRT.

Menopausal symptoms such as weariness, irritability, weight gain, hot flashes, and depression can be alleviated by HRT in women. When a woman reaches menopause and stops menstruating, her ovaries produce much less estrogen and progesterone. Changes in these hormone levels can be both frightening and unpleasant. HRT, which increases hormone levels within the body, can help alleviate menopause symptoms.

The two most prevalent types of HRT for women are as follows:

Estrogen: It is frequently administered as a tablet to be taken daily or a patch to be applied daily. You can also purchase estrogen-containing vaginal rings, creams, sprays, and gels. The doctor will likely start the therapy with a low dose of estrogen to alleviate menopause symptoms and reduce your risk of osteoporosis.

Progestin/Estrogen progesterone Therapy: This combination therapy combines estrogen and progesterone to restore hormone levels and alleviate menopause symptoms.

Coming to HRT vs. TRT for men, the therapy of choice is TRT.

TRT is often administered using injections. Patches, gels, and lotions can be applied to the skin. This hormone replacement therapy can increase an individual’s energy, stamina, and endurance. Additionally, it can help individuals gain muscle mass and increase their metabolism. All of these can help people lose weight and burn fat.

If low testosterone levels have created an estrogen imbalance and imbalance in the levels of other hormones, various kinds of HRT may be administered to men to restore the hormonal balance.

HRT vs. TRT: Major Difference

There is a simple difference between TRT and HRT. The purpose of HRT is to restore normal levels of different hormones already present in the body, such as testosterone, thyroid, and growth hormones. The primary objective of TRT is to increase testosterone levels only. HRT is used for women, while TRT is used for men.

TRT is an excellent way for men to enhance their quality of life. A woman with aging health issues may benefit greatly from HRT treatment.

Your current hormone levels and overall health will determine your optimal therapy type. This will be determined following a discussion between you and your primary care physician.

See Also: BHRT vs. HRT: Which Is the Best Option?


Recent advances in modern medicine have led to the development of medicines that can cure diseases, alleviate the symptoms of long-term health problems, and extend individuals’ lives.

One of these significant findings is how to maintain and even improve hormone levels, such as testosterone levels, in the body. Humans now have access to HRT and TRT. Due to these advancements, people with hormone imbalances or deficiencies can feel better, have more energy, increase their endurance, combat poor sex drive, gain muscle, and reduce weight.

If you have any low testosterone or hormonal imbalance symptoms, you should discuss the option of TRT or HRT with your primary care doctor. HRT or TRT may be beneficial for you.

We are here to assist you in regaining your energy and health so that you can live and engage in the activities you enjoy. Family Medicine Austin has specialists who comprehend how intricate hormones may be and can tailor a therapy strategy to your hormone and health requirements. Our individualized and all-encompassing health and hormone treatments will give you more vitality and make you feel young again. No matter your gender or the severity of your symptoms, individualized hormone replacement therapy can help restore your hormone levels to the physiological range and give you back control of your daily life. If you are interested in HRT or TRT in Austin, Texas, or if you have any queries regarding the therapy, please don’t hesitate to contact our helpful and knowledgeable staff.

Schedule your consultation now by calling: (512) 872-6868.


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At Family Medicine Austin, we provide preventive, diagnostic, and disease management care for families. Our expert providers offer personalized, patient-centered services to achieve your health goals. Come see us today for comprehensive care that caters to your needs.


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IMPORTANT! All information presented in this website is intended for informational purposes only and not for the purpose of rendering medical advice. Statements made on this website have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained herein is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
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