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Gastrointestinal and Stomach Issues After Covid-19: What to Know and Expect.

stomach issues after covid

The predominant documented symptoms of COVID-19 during much of the epidemic have become a chronic cough and fever. However, as caseloads have increased and new variations have evolved, new symptoms have emerged.

According to a September 2020 analysis, 53% of those hospitalized with COVID-19 had at least one gastrointestinal (GI) symptom throughout their illness. The pandemic’s influence resulted in stomach problems after covid-19 is becoming clearer as the epidemic develops and experts understand more about the disease. There is some indication that having COVID-19 GI symptoms — or getting the illness on top of an existing GI problem — may raise the likelihood of COVID-19 intensity and consequences. This special blog examines what experts know so far regarding the prevalence.

Symptoms of digestive or stomach issues after covid-19:

COVID-19 is characterized by respiratory symptoms such as coughing and difficulty breathing. However, preliminary data from China showed that COVID-19 might potentially cause digestive issues, ultimately. The GI system responsible for adequate digestive system consists of the following components:

  • Mouth
  • The tube that links the mouth to the stomach is known as the esophagus.
  • Stomach
  • Intestines
  • Anus

The first person in the United States with confirmed COVID-19 endured two days of nausea and vomiting before experiencing diarrhea. And, according to one of the early American studies, around 32% of individuals with the condition complained of digestive issues symptoms, most often diarrhea, nausea, or lack of appetite.

The research is always developing. The most prevalent GI symptoms of COVID-19, according to a February 2021 review that comprised 125 publications and a total of 25,252 participants, were:

  • A loss of appetite (19.9 percent)
  • Distortion or aversion to taste (15.4 percent)
  • Gastroenteritis (13.2 percent)
  • Nauseousness (10.3 percent)
  • GI bleeding or vomiting up blood (9.1 percent)

A previous analysis, released in January 2021, discovered much higher rates of symptom occurrence, such as:

  • Diarrhea (9–34% of the time)
  • Nauseousness, vomiting (7–16%)
  • Abdominal discomfort (3–11%)

The condition may also harm gut tissues and impede intestinal motility. It shows that a large number of people with COVID-19 having stomach difficulties also have respiratory symptoms. However, according to an analysis published in late 2020, 16% of persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 only had GI symptoms. And, in some cases, these symptoms appeared before respiratory problems or fever.

Early research indicates that GI symptoms are more common in the early phases of an illness. Digestive issues related to covid-19 are prevalent, having up to one-third of COVID-19 patients presenting with GI symptoms first. Nausea and vomiting may occur in up to two-thirds of COVID-19 patients. Around 40% of COVID-19 patients may have appetite loss, and close to 50% may develop diarrhea. Abdominal pain is less common, affecting less than 10% of the population.

 

What happens when covid-19 affects your digestive system:

Researchers are still discovering how SARS-CoV-2 infection affects different sections of the body, especially stomach issues after covid-19. SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to infect cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and also cells in other areas of the body.

According to research, SARS-CoV-2 penetrates intestinal and respiratory cells via the protein as a receptor. The ACE-2 receptor is found in cell membranes. It aids in the regulation of blood pressure by regulating the levels of the protein angiotensin, which causes blood vessels to constrict and elevate blood pressure.

After its distinctive spike proteins attach to ACE-2, the virus reaches intestinal cells. Once within the cell, the virus replicates viral proteins and RNA using the cell’s own machinery. SARS-CoV-2, like many viruses, contains its genetic material on a strand of RNA, similar to human DNA.

When SARS-CoV-2 particles exit an infected cell, they cause the production of cytokines, which are tiny proteins that aid in inflammation. This procedure may result in gastrointestinal discomfort. Meanwhile, nausea and diarrhea which are symptoms of a bloated stomach after covid-19 are frequent adverse effects of drugs used by healthcare experts to treat COVID-19, such as antivirals.

In fact, fecal samples from the very first person in the United States with confirmed COVID-19 contained SARS-CoV-2 particles. Furthermore, evidence indicates that people may shed viral particles in their feces after the virus has become undetected in the respiratory system, including the lungs, nose, and throat. This might alter our knowledge of how virus spreads for plenty of time.

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Outcomes of stomach problems after covid-19:

People who have COVID-19 digestive issues symptoms may be more prone to develop problems or be more vulnerable to such issues. A research published in November 2020 discovered that experiencing GI or stomach issues symptoms was linked to an increased likelihood of getting acute respiratory distress, as have following investigations. The study also discovered that having GI symptoms increased the probability of requiring noninvasive mechanical breathing and tracheal intubation, both of which are risky procedures. In addition, according to a paper published in October 2020, adolescents with COVID-19 who have GI or stomach issues symptoms are more prone to acquire serious, critical infectious diseases and cardiac abnormalities.

Another study, from December 2020, indicated that the prevalence of digestive issues symptoms due to covid-19 in adults was connected with more severe disease and catastrophic results. A more recent review showed that persons with COVID-19 and digestive symptoms during hospitalization were more likely to suffer acute heart and renal damage or die from the condition.

According to research, those who have pre-existing GI issues are more likely to develop significant illness and bad effects. According to research, those with GI disorders such as Barrett’s esophagus may be at a higher risk of getting severe COVID-19. Some researchers believe this link exists because GI illnesses involve the stomach lining getting replaced with cells that looked identical to intestinal lining cells.

See Also: What are Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

Since it harms or impairs the intestinal or stomach lining, many stomach diseases by covid-19 may also make it easier to acquire GI infections including inflammatory bowel illness is one of these disorders.

Family Medicine Austin

 

Written by Jeannette

I am Jeannette, the medical writing specialist here at Family Medicine Austin. I have over five years of experience working with a range of medical and healthcare across the U.S.